The New Look

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Christian Dior  1905-1957 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tojt_3dtbas

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Underwear

1883-1896

bust improvers.  1887, cup-shaped wire structures.

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1897-1909
The spirit of costume, anticipating the Edwardian period, changed in character, and the new epoch began in 1897.  The influence of sport spreads taste for more comfortable clothes in daily life, and the top hat and frock coat were becoming a specialized uniform for particular occasions.   Feminine underclothes developed a degree of eroticism never previously attempted.  They invented a silhouette of fictitious curves, massive above, with rivulets of lacy embroidery trickling over the surface down to a whirlpool of froth.

The drawers and pants. similar materials to undervest. pants were ankle-length or mid-calf, drawers were either just below the knee or just above.

combination

the combinations.  vest and pants in one.

the pajamas.  replace the night shirt.

 

Women

A wish for dainty underwear is a desire for cleanliness.

the chemise. for day fine linen, batiste or lawn.  For evening of lawn or silk.

the combinations.  knicker and camisole combinations with lace, made of wool and silk and wool.

the corset.  the stays are straight and forward but leave the figure graceful and supple; whilst narrowing the back in a most surprising manner.  Chest expands. Gibson Girl silhouette.

1904

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the petticoat.  always flimsy; not more than two were worn, the top one, particularly when colored was referred to as an underskirt.

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the drawers.  nainsook knickers with frills of muslin embroidery; french drawers of mull muslin or washing silk, with flounce and three rows of insertion, threaded with baby ribbon, worn under lace or silk petticoat.

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the camisole.  corset covers – petticoat bodices, under clothing becomes thinner and thinner.

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bust improvers.  bust fashioned on Venus de Milo.  The Neena bust improver.

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the bust bodice.  worn above the corset

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the nightclothes.  flimsier materials and elaborately trimmed.

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the trousseaux. ladies undergarments.

 

1909-1918

Simplification in dress. Underclothes were permitting freer movement, growing inclination to reduce the layers which covered the body.  Slowly realized that in the active life of the modern world so much clothing was unnecessary and a relic of obsolete ideas.

Men

progressive increase in the variety of articles available.

the shirt.  long fronted white or printed shirt is now obsolete.

the business shirt stiff 10″ front, detachable cuffs, for day the white shirt was being steadily displaced by the soft-fronted, made of flannel in winter and of cambric in summer.  Pleated and tucked fronts.  Day tie, four-in-hand, or bow knot.

the vest.  long or short sleeves; made of unbleached cotton, white gauze or net for summer, and of meriono.

the drawers and pants.  unbleached cotton, calico, gauze and merino.

the combinations still being worn.

the nightclothes.  Longcloth shirts and pajama’s

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Women

the new silhouette, with a skirt of 1 1/2 yards round the hem, left little space for expansive underclothing.

the chemise.  square-cut with narrow shoulder straps.

the combination.  replaces the chemise and skirt-knickers by skin fitting combinations and silk pantalettes.

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the corset.  corsets whether back or front lace, boning was all important, the strain on the garment was terrific. 1912 clock-spring steel covered with hard rubber or celluloid was adopted and whalebone never recovered.

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corsets

the petticoat. Princess petticoat 1911.  1915 expands

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the Brassiere.  1916 a new undergarment which takes place of camisole.

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the chemi-knickers.  1917 new under slip, worn over the corset, helping to reduce the number of undergarments; a button and loop can be put at the lowest hem to catch the skirt together in divided skirt fashion.

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the knickers.  french with wide frilled legs. skirt knickers.

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the nightclothes. pre-war the nightdress.  Pajama suit has a growing interest.

 

1919-1939

new attitude of mind towards the function of clothing and underclothing.

“skin worship”  devotees tanned their bodies by sunlight, real or artificial, or by stains; women improve their faces with paints, lotions and skin foods containing hormones.  Focus on the face they cut off their hair.  glorification of youth.

Men

Prince of Wales, publicly condemned “the boiled shirt” Garish colors in dress was the new spirit.

the shirt.  for day wear.  oxford shirt with white collar and cuffs. the dress-shirt single stud, white pleated front.  the sports shirt, cotton or wool taffeta, turn collar.

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the combination. derived from America, one piece suit for underwear in place of a vest and pants.

the shorts and trunks.  made with lastex wasitbands, generally worn by 1930.

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the singlet.  jersey necks and quarter sleeves, low neck, sleeveless displaced in vest in 1930’s.

the pajamas.  light weight in a wide choice of materials.

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women

no period in history has presented a great variety of underclothes and though so much reduced in bulk, they developed a new importance and complexity.  Many materials employed, artificial silk in various forms dominated, and was available for all classes.

the garments were divided into two headings: single and composite.

Single –

the chemise.  “the vest”

the undervest. wool was unfashionable garment

the combinations.  close fitting woven garment, becoming almost tights during the 1930’s

vest combinations

the camisole. disappeared as a separate  garment towards end of 1920s

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the brassiere.  becoming the bra in 1937.  Developed from the bust bodice and in the 1920’s becomes very tight, compressing the breasts to produce the straight, shapeless form then fashionable.

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the corset.  wrap-around rubber corsets to compress the buttocks.  corsets to produce a slenderizing effect on the figure.

 

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the belt.  substitute for the corset, varied from abdominal supports to light suspender belts with or without bones.

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the knickers. french drawers with open legs, and closed knickers.  1924 shortened into panties.

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the petticoat.  becomes the princess slip.

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The Composite.

the corselette.

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the cami-knickers .

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the cami-bockers.

 

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the nightclothes.  reflect the spirit of the dress of the period.

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1940’s

Bra

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1950’s

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1960’s

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1960s-lingerie

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1970’s

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1980’s

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1990’s

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some fun facts about the Bra:

history of the bra

who invented the bra

 

Annotated Bibliography

Easybib

Definitions

bibliography is a list of sources (books, journals, Web sites, periodicals, etc.) one has used for researching a topic. Bibliographies are sometimes called “References” or “Works Cited” depending on the style format you are using. A bibliography usually just includes the bibliographic information (i.e., the author, title, publisher, etc.).

An annotation is a summary and/or evaluation. Therefore, an annotated bibliographyincludes a summary and/or evaluation of each of the sources. Depending on your project or the assignment, your annotations may do one or more of the following.

  • Summarize: Some annotations merely summarize the source. What are the main arguments? What is the point of this book or article? What topics are covered? If someone asked what this article/book is about, what would you say? The length of your annotations will determine how detailed your summary is.For more help, see our handout on paraphrasing sources.
  • Assess: After summarizing a source, it may be helpful to evaluate it. Is it a useful source? How does it compare with other sources in your bibliography? Is the information reliable? Is this source biased or objective? What is the goal of this source?For more help, see our handouts on evaluating resources.
  • Reflect: Once you’ve summarized and assessed a source, you need to ask how it fits into your research. Was this source helpful to you? How does it help you shape your argument? How can you use this source in your research project? Has it changed how you think about your topic?

Your annotated bibliography may include some of these, all of these, or even others. If you’re doing this for a class, you should get specific guidelines from your instructor.

Why should I write an annotated bibliography?

To learn about your topic: Writing an annotated bibliography is excellent preparation for a research project. Just collecting sources for a bibliography is useful, but when you have to write annotations for each source, you’re forced to read each source more carefully. You begin to read more critically instead of just collecting information. At the professional level, annotated bibliographies allow you to see what has been done in the literature and where your own research or scholarship can fit. To help you formulate a thesis: Every good research paper is an argument. The purpose of research is to state and support a thesis. So a very important part of research is developing a thesis that is debatable, interesting, and current. Writing an annotated bibliography can help you gain a good perspective on what is being said about your topic. By reading and responding to a variety of sources on a topic, you’ll start to see what the issues are, what people are arguing about, and you’ll then be able to develop your own point of view.

To help other researchers: Extensive and scholarly annotated bibliographies are sometimes published. They provide a comprehensive overview of everything important that has been and is being said about that topic. You may not ever get your annotated bibliography published, but as a researcher, you might want to look for one that has been published about your topic.

Format

The format of an annotated bibliography can vary, so if you’re doing one for a class, it’s important to ask for specific guidelines.

The bibliographic information: Generally, though, the bibliographic information of the source (the title, author, publisher, date, etc.) is written in either MLA or APA format. For more help with formatting, see our MLA handout. For APA, go here: APA handout.

The annotations: The annotations for each source are written in paragraph form. The lengths of the annotations can vary significantly from a couple of sentences to a couple of pages. The length will depend on the purpose. If you’re just writing summaries of your sources, the annotations may not be very long. However, if you are writing an extensive analysis of each source, you’ll need more space.

You can focus your annotations for your own needs. A few sentences of general summary followed by several sentences of how you can fit the work into your larger paper or project can serve you well when you go to draft.

Samples

Sample MLA Annotation

Lamott, Anne. Bird by Bird: Some Instructions on Writing and Life. Anchor Books, 1995.

Lamott’s book offers honest advice on the nature of a writing life, complete with its insecurities  and failures. Taking a humorous approach to the realities of being a writer, the chapters in Lamott’s book are wry and anecdotal and offer advice on everything from plot development to  jealousy, from perfectionism to struggling with one’s own internal critic.
In the process, Lamott  includes writing exercises designed to be both productive and fun. Lamott offers sane advice for those struggling with the anxieties of writing, but her main project seems to be offering the reader a reality check regarding writing, publishing, and struggling with one’s own imperfect humanity in the process. Rather than a practical handbook to producing and/or publishing, this text is indispensable because of its honest perspective, its down-to-earth humor, and its encouraging approach.
Chapters in this text could easily be included in the curriculum for a writing class. Several of the chapters in Part 1 address the writing process and would serve to generate discussion on students’ own drafting and revising processes. Some of the writing exercises would also be appropriate for generating classroom writing exercises. Students should find Lamott’s style both engaging and enjoyable.

In the sample annotation above, the writer includes three paragraphs: a summary, an evaluation of the text, and a reflection on its applicability to his/her own research, respectively.

from https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/614/03/

CSULA now has THE VOGUE ARCHIVE

Just in time to help with your research projects!!!!

The library has acquired the  The Vogue Archive.  This online resource contains the entire run  of Vogue magazine (US edition) from 1892 to the present day,  reproduced in high-resolution color page images.  More than 400,000  pages are included, constituting a treasure trove of the work from the  greatest designers, photographers, stylists, and illustrators of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries.  Vogue is a unique record of American and international popular culture that extends beyond fashion.  The Vogue
Archive is an essential primary source for the study of fashion, gender,
and modern social history – past, present, and future.

 

CLICK HERE TO ACCESS THE VOGUE ARCHIVE

 

Useful for subjects like:

  • Fashion history
  • Gender studies
  • Marketing and advertising
  • Photography and graphic design
  • Popular culture
  • Textiles and dress