CSULA now has THE VOGUE ARCHIVE

Just in time to help with your research projects!!!!

The library has acquired the  The Vogue Archive.  This online resource contains the entire run  of Vogue magazine (US edition) from 1892 to the present day,  reproduced in high-resolution color page images.  More than 400,000  pages are included, constituting a treasure trove of the work from the  greatest designers, photographers, stylists, and illustrators of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries.  Vogue is a unique record of American and international popular culture that extends beyond fashion.  The Vogue
Archive is an essential primary source for the study of fashion, gender,
and modern social history – past, present, and future.

 

CLICK HERE TO ACCESS THE VOGUE ARCHIVE

 

Useful for subjects like:

  • Fashion history
  • Gender studies
  • Marketing and advertising
  • Photography and graphic design
  • Popular culture
  • Textiles and dress

 

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Leap Before You Look

A history of Black Mountain College   A School Like No Other

PROGRESSIVE EDUCATION  “What you do with what you know is the important thing.  To know is not enough.” John Price.

Experimentation, experience and ephemeral

HAPTIC

BAUHAUS IN AMERICA – hiring of Joseph Albers, Anni Albers and Xanti Schawinsky   Anni and Joseph Albers 

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Scene from Xanti Schawinsky a Dance Macabre 1938

 

IMG_4444.JPG Xanti Schawinsky Watercolor 1938

 

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Xanti Schawinsky Spectrodrama 1936-37

 

WORK PROGRAM . Farming, Servicing the buildings, roads, pathways, and kitchen. Flattened hierarchies and fostered community.

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DESIGN-BUILD PROGRAM – developing the campus architecture.

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Students and Bukminsterfuller

 

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MEXICO AND MODERNITY . Modern Abstraction assigned high aesthetic and moral value to art from non-western societies and earlier civilizations.

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Tenayucua 1936 by Joseph Albers

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Tenayucua 1936 by Joseph Albers

 

IMG_4448.jpgJoseph Albers 1947

 

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Anni Albers 1947

WEAVING Foundational and longest running workshops.  Design for industry,  WWII decimated hand weaving industry, as in textiles were industrially produced and screen printed. Isolated itself from vernacular textile community.

Anni Albers   Anni Albers Video images

Student samples

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IMG_4468.JPGAnni Albers 1946 61 x 48″

 

IMG_4470.JPGElizbether Jennerjahn 1949 12 x 10″

 

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Elizbether Jennerjahn 1951 25 x 25″

 

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Anni Albers and Alexander Reed 1940 bobby pins on chain

 

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Anni Albers and Alexander Reed  1940

 

IMG_1933.JPGWall Hanging 1926 (replica woven in 1966) Triple-weave black, white and orange cotton and synthetic silk.

 

IMG_4480.JPG Anni Albers 1949 Installatio at MOMA

 

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Anni Albers free Hanging Room Divider 1949 Jut and Lurex

 

IMG_4484.jpgAnni Albers Free Hanging Room Divider, 1949 Cotton

 

ARTIST, DESIGNERS, POETS, MUSCIANS

Willem and Elaine de Kooning

Robert Rauschenberg

Jacob Lawrence

Merce Cunningham

John Cage

Cy Twombly

Kenneth Noland

Vera B. Williams

Ben Shahn

Franz Kline

Arthur Penn

Buckminster Fuller

M.C. Richards

Francine du Plessix Gray

Charles Olson

Robert Creeley

Dorothea Rockburne

 

Bauhaus – Education / Weaving / Color

The Bauhaus     Documentary 1  Documentary 2  Documentary 3 

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Walter Gropius, diagram for the structure of teaching 1922

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Translation

 

 

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Walter Gropius Directors Office, Bauhaus, Weimar 1923-24

 

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Erich Consemuller, Bauhaus Scene, 1926. Sitting in Bauhaus chair, wearing bauhaus clothing, and mask.

Traidisches Ballett Von Oskar Schlemmer 

Weaving 

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Wall Hanging, Max Peiffer Watenphul 1921

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Bauhaus Dress, Lis Volger, 1928

Color Theory 

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Color Wheel used in Gertrud Grunow’s Class 1921 by Alfred Arndt

 

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Reingard Voigt.  1929-30. The Economy of means: Complimentary combination shifted / mirrored and rotated.

 

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Lena Bergner, 1927 color study for Paul Klee’s class.

Gunta Stolzl   Lecture from a Daughters perspective 

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Slit Tapestry Red-Green, 1927-28

Anni Albers   Anni and Joseph Albers   Anni Albers Video images

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Wall Hanging 1926 (replica woven in 1966) Triple-weave black, white and orange cotton and synthetic silk.

 

 

 

 

 

Wearing Propaganda

Wearing Propaganda: 1931-45 Textiles and apparel on the home front in Japan, Britain and United States.

As well as casting new light on wartime propaganda methods, it provides fascinating insights into the divergent attitudes towards patriotism and war in the three countries in question

The contrast between the personal, intimate nature of these garments, including various types of kimono, obi (sash) and haori (jacket) and their strident nationalistic imagery was startling

Whereas all the British and American textiles were either roller-printed by machine, or screen-printed or block-printed by hand, the Japanese employed a variety of techniques, including kasuri, where the warp is printed, rather than the cloth, resulting in blurred effects. Many kimonos were produced as one-offs. Some were hand-painted rather than printed; many were decorated using stencils, paste-resists and dyes, a process known as yüzen.

Part 1: Setting the Context 1931-1945

Asia Pacific War begins with Manchurian Incident in 1931  Japan gains power, sees itself a modern

Hitler on the Rise in Germany

Britain 1939 declares war on Germany

US Pearl Harbor 1941

Propaganda on the Home Fronts:

Visual Propaganda, appeals to emotions vs. intellect

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Homefront: morale and motivation are lost, commitment to battle soon follows.

Propaganda involves: a sender, a message, a receiver, a purpose, a medium and an effect.

Includes: national visual culture, popular, and material culture: posters, cartoons, leaflets, advertising, cinema, radio and news media to get the message across.

Agitation propaganda – call to action

Integration propaganda – substituting one framework for another war to peace, moral, social, and intellectual indoctrination.

V is for Victory

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Propaganda textiles were worn in Japan by adults and children, and used for traditional clothing such as kimono, obi, nagajuban, haori, and in accessories haneri, furoshiki, tenugui, and furoshiki.

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Furoshiki were favored as military mementos’ and were made with designs referencing specific military units or events.

Tenugui were made for household use, zabuton and futon.

Represent traditional masculine attributes: power, bravery and loyalty.

Koinobori – carp banner flown for boy’s holidays

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Kobuto – samurai helmets

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Gosho ningyo – doll figure

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American and British propaganda textiles were made into dress goods for women’s accessories, such as handkerchiefs and scarves.  For men ties were the logical place.

Propaganda Precedents – pre 1930’s

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Bedcover, “the apotheosis of Benjamin Franklin and George Washington” Britain ca. 1785

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Handkerchief, “Playing Soldiers” Britain 1880.

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Dress yardage “the Union Forever” 1861-65. Printed cotton.

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Kerchief. “remember the Maine” 1898.

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Japan, 1894 war board game.

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Short Silk Juban, 1905.

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Russo-Japanese War Surrender, Japan 1905.  Kimono Fabric, early 20th century.

Part 2: Visual Culture of War

Japan’s Beautiful Modern War

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Childs Kimono detail. 1937

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1930’s Japanese government posters

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Potatoes are Protective, Too

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Textile: Battle of Britain. 1940.

Ministry of Food Ad. 1943.

Cover of Boo-Boo barrage Balloon.  1940.

Barrage balloons used the largest stretches of textiles in Britain during WWII.  Riveting home front icon.  Lowly potatoes come into play as a stand in balloon.

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Dress.  Happy Landings.  Designed by Arnold Lever 1940.

Woman versus man became enemy versus ally.

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Kerchief “keep it dark” 1940

Dress detail: mosaic of “you never know who’s listening” 1940’s.

 

An American Vision Doing our part.

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Posters

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Broadside and poster

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Pincushion “hotzi notzi” 1941

 

Part 3: Wearing Propaganda: fashion, textiles and morale on the home front.

Extravagance is the enemy

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Woman’s Haori.  “the thrill of the flight” late 1920’s – early 1930’s

Narrow width weaving

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Childs Haregi. “images of war” late 1930’s

Meisen Kimono

Give up dresses and kimono and wear a Monpe, make up and permanent waves were banned in 1939.

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Cotton shortage, wool requisitioned for military clothing and blankets, silk only textile not imported and was also channeled into war good.

National guidelines for dress –  the committee for reform of national dress, from ministries of army, commerce, agriculture and imperial household affairs.

Outline for Implementing Simplified Wartime Clothing Habits. Greater regulation of styles and created a new mode know as “reformed western dress”  Monpe only garment generally adapted.

1942 High fashion non-existent due to shortages.

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boy’s summer kimono “running soldiers” 1940’s.

Design and War: Kimono as “Parlor Performance” Propaganda.

Japans military might is projected toward Korea and China.

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Furoshiki “war in china”  Kimono fabric 1930’s.

Children’s Kimono’s appeal to the child as well as the adults who see them and require less material than an adults Kimono.

Modern design in clothing was manifested in two ways during wartime:  the kimono with war-promoting designs and the designs for standardized clothing.  Civilian uniforms for men (kokuminfuku) and women (hyojunfuku) represent propaganda on a grander scale because they were sanctioned and promoted by the government.

Principe motifs of the Kimono:

Armaments (battleships, airplanes, tanks, sabers, bayonets, bombs, artillery)

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The national flag, military flags, army and navy badges, golden kite medal

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Battlefield scenes

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Victory celebrations

Manchukuo themes

Axis-Alliance celebration

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Rich nation, strong army and industrial development

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Man’s Nagujuban, 1939-41

Military deities

 

Keeping up on the home front morale: beauty and duty in wartime Britain

“the peoples war”

Austerity and appearances – downplay the instabilities and paradoxes thrown up by the changing definition of a woman.    Show solidarity by adopting a more austere look.

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It’s a women’s duty to keep themselves looking their best.  “Looking good” lifts spirits.

Utility clothing scheme: state regulated program for the production, pricing, and rational of clothes, entitled everyone to basic but limited amounts of clothing at fair prices through ha coupon system of payment.

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Utility Suit gray harringbone wool. Britain 1942

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Utility clothing was regarded as fashionable as clothing produced outside the systems looked like that produced with in.

Making do and Making over

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Berketex Utility range of dresses. Britain 1942

Beauty a duty – for women who joined the women’s services between 1939-1945.

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Make up

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Stockings

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Hair

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Propaganda prints

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Dress Fabric and jacket. Britain 1940

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London Squares: the scarves of wartime Britain.

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Showing the colors of America:

Fashion Center shifts to US.

Uncle Sam assumed roll of fashion designer.

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Sweeping restrictions aim to save 15% of the yardage now used in women’s and girl’s apparel.  Restricted hems and belts. Dresses shorter and tighter.  Men’s suits made without vests and pockets. Wool, metal zippers, rubber, leather (cork wedges)

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two-toned clothing, make with patched together clothing

Production of Hemp is encouraged.

Nylon was missed, women stood in line for hours.

Feed sack fabric

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Feed-Sack-dresses

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Propaganda Textiles 

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Aeroplane Kimono 1930’s

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Kimono and Obi 1930’s

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Modern Military, 1930’s

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Childs Vest, Printed muslin. 1930’s.

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woman’s haori. 1930’s

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Boy’s Kimono 1938-40

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Military Man Kimono 1930’s

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Obi.  Marching soldiers. 1930’s

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Baby’s haori. “fighting machines” 1930’s.

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Girls Naregi.  1941

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boy’s haori. 1940’s

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boys haori. 1940’s.

Scarves – United States

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Victory Yardage 1940’s.

Designing Utopia

 

Henry Van de Velde in Germany

“The evolution of ideas and of the conditions of social life cannot make do solely with painting and statues.  It is madness to consider only these for our material existence and it’s blindness to believe they can satisfy all  the art needs of our time”

“nothing will enter our home except what I have conceived and designed myself”

Gesamtkunstwerk: the total work of art.

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Maria Sethe, Mrs. Van de Velde clothes were treated like any other object in the house.  Match her dresses with the vegetable puree served at dinner.

Van de Velde didn’t design his own clothing, as he believed men’s clothing was already far more rational than women’s.   “Fashion is flighty, unfaithful, coquettish, and naturally delusive.

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His theories in his own  country have little impact, but he did inspire other artist, designers and architects to do the same: Frank Lloyd Wright designed his wife’s dresses.   When his career takes him to Germany, there is anti fashion theories are more favorably received.

  1. unified German nation, was experiencing an economic boom, and a great interest in Kunstgewerbe (applied arts) and it’s relationship to industry.
  2. Germany was a favorite place for dress reform that had been initiated by feminist and hygienists.

Kaiser Wilhelm-Museum hosted an exhibition of rational dress, Van de Velde show’s six of his wife’s dresses.  Exhibition was a great success and similar shows followed.  Exhibiting and spreading inspiration of the applied arts, of which fashion was one.

Last attempt to establish artistic dress in 1910’s  Germany was the Modehaus Alfred-Marie, a fashion house opened in 1914 by the painter and dress designer Otto Ludwig Haas-Heye.  Very successful but rejected by avant-garde because it was too commercially oriented.

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Klimt and the Wiener Werkstatte

Founded in 1903 by Josef Hoffmann and Koloman Moser on the model of the Century Guild of Arthur Mackmurdo and the Guild of Handicraft of Charles Robert Ashbee, the Wiener Werkstatte, “a society for the production of craft”, any distinction between art and craft was abolished.

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Like van de Velde, Hoffmann thought the artist had to consider every detail of his surroundings, it was the only way to achieve harmony.

Modeabteilung “architect of fashion”

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Wiener Werkstatte fashion ablum 

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Friederika Maria Beer in a Wiener-Werkstatte ensamble made from the fabric “maria” by Dagobert Peche.

Hoffman “as long as our cities, our homes, our rooms, our cupboards, our tools, our dress and finery, as long as our language and our feelings will not symbolize in a simple and beautiful way the spirit of our times, we will be relegated to an infinite distance from our ancestors, and no lie will ever be able to conceal these weaknesses”

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Artist Gustav Klimt

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Klimt and Emile Floge, 1905-10, dress probably designed by Klimt. 

Kunsterkleid artist dress.  Limited impact, created by an artist, such clothing is not primarily a practical object but rather a genuine work of art, whose foremost quality is beauty.  Radically opposed to that of his main rival, Adolf Loos, who believed that talking about the beauty of clothing in art was a sort of heresy:  “a painting by Botticelli, a melody by Burns, these are beautiful things.  But a pair of trousers?…A jacket must have two or three buttons? The cut of the collar should be high or low? I am seized by anxiety when i hear people discussing the beauty of such things.  I become nervous when one asks me about a garment, “is this not beautiful?”

Eduard Wimmer-Wisgrill, lead the Mode-abteilung from 1911-22, and he followed the line of kunsterkleid (art dress), he favored a style halfway between the Reformkleid (reform dress) and the orientalizing costume.

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Wimmer-Wisgrill: project for a dress with “harem pants” 1914

 

Futurism and Dress

“Today’s woman loves luxury more than love.  A visit to a great dressmaker’s establishment, escorted by a paunch, gouty banker friend who pays the bills, is a perfect substitute for the most amorous rendezvous with an adored young man.  The woman finds all the mystery of love in the selection of an amazing ensemble, the latest model, which her friends still do not have.”

 

Futurist Manifesto.  Futurism wanted to reconstruction of the universe.  Fascism and Futurism

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Marinetti: fashion is evil, it corrupts women, who are too weak to resist the temptation of the latest garment.

Giacomo Balla: in 1912 Balla first futurist to design clothes.

20 May 1914, Balla published the Futurist Manifesto on clothing, “Male Futurist Dress”.  To escape from the depressing established approach to clothing, Balla wanted to completely abolish mourning dress; dark or faded colors; striped, checked, or spotted fabrics; symmetry in cut; uniformity of lapels; useless buttons; and the detachable collar and starched  cuffs.  Futurist Dress would be dynamic, asymmetrical, nimble, simple and comfortable, hygienic, joyful, illuminating, willful, flying and most of all, variable.

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Modifiers applique pieces of cloth (of different size, thickness or color) that can be attached at will to any part of the dress with pneumatic buttons.  Not limited to color and texture as some of them were perfumed. Thus anyone could invent a new dress at any time depending on the mood.  The wearer is given control over the changes in dress.

The futurist reconstruction of the universe  French “transformable clothes” made using “mechanical trimmings surprises, tricks, disappearance of individuals”

“light-giving” quality of clothes, requirenment to use phosphorescent cloth.

 

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Balla: projects for futurist ties.  1925-1930

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Balla-projects for scarves. 1919

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Balla – projects for Futurist jacket 1914

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Balla-Futurist shoes 1916-1918, 1929, and Dress 1930

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Balla – projects for blouses and sweaters 1930

1914 The Antineutral Dress Bella, Italian verison.  “we will glorify war, the world’s only hygiene” favored Italy’s entry into WWII

Futurist Clothes had to:  main qualities became aggressiveness, “to increase the flexibility of the body and to favor its surge to fight” and dynamism, “to inspire the love of danger, of speed and assault and the hatred of peace and immobility”  First manifesto promoted comfort, the second was associated with military practicalities such as rifle shooting.

The heroic dead should not be mourned, but celebrated by  wearing red clothes.   Modifiers were illustrated like those of the French manifesto, but were changed to be “warlike”

White Green Red Mourning suit for Marinetti

White red blue suit for Francesco Cangiullo

White red green suit for Umberto Boccioni

Red all piece suit for Cardo Carra

Green Pullover white and red jacket for Luigi Russolo

“living flags”

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Balla – Projects for Suits and Fabrics 1914

“this intrinsic provocation in Futurist dress is not only based on imagination, it also involves behavior…a behavioral input aimed at the achievement of great ability and nonchalance in everyday actions and social relations.  This type of behavioral induction is an integral part of Futurist ideological writing, for which the garment  is a visible sign.  It is not possible to be Futurist without acting in the real world in a Futurist manner, and the correct dress is the visible sign of this intention.

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Balla- project for a house dress. 1925

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Balla- embroidered waistcoat worn by the artist. 1924

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Balla – project for a dress 1929

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Balla- project for a swim suit, 1930.

Second generation of Futurist Artist:

1932 Tullio Crali “eliminating what is superfluous”

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Grey Flannel jacket with no details or pockets and only one lapel. Tie is banished from the suit.

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Crali- Project for a dress. 1932

The Tuta: comfort, simplicity, and hygiene.  It could be made by oneself.  1000 patterns were sold in a few days.  Gave birth to a new group called i tutisti.  Motivated by the economic precariousness postwar period, responding to scarcity and a protest against the cost of traditional clothes.   Variations on the american overalls.

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Enresto Michahelles, aka Thayaht Tuta Jumpsuit for men

 

Kibbo Kift  Untold Story 

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Drag

DRAG QUEENS

The question of transvestite fashion (dated statement)  is, as Marjorie Garber has noted, the essence of theater, role playing, costume, and boundary experimentation, the qualities so evident in the aesthetic celebrity in such people as Oscar Wilde.

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In 1882 one of the highly praised and best-paid minstrel star was the female impersonator Francis Leon, who boasted that he owned three hundred dresses and a great deal of jewelry.

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In vaudeville, female stars appeared as Oscar Wilde (“silk stockings, knee-breeches and a velvet coat”), an indication that the experiments within aesthetic iconography (theater, self-creation, and new personal presentations) were extending into an arena of popular entertainment.

Rocky Twins 1920’s paris 

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DRAG KINGS  

Male drag is a staple of theatrical and cinematic tradition. Examples range from the famous stage performances of Sarah Bernhardt as Hamlet and (more recently) Pat Carroll as Falstaff, to the operatic convention of travesti or “trouser roles” in which mezzosopranos sing male roles, to the memorable presences in male attire of movie actresses as varied as Clara Bow, Greta Garbo, Marlene Dietrich, Katharine Hepburn, and Julie Andrews. Some entertainers, such as blues singer Gladys Bentley, who sang about “bulldaggers,” while dressed in tails and tuxedo, sexualize the cross-dressing. Although cross-dressing always has a potential to destabilize assumptions about gender and sexuality, the impersonation of men, even by black lesbians, has usually not been seen as threatening when presented as entertainment. Consequently, drag kings are usually greeted with enthusiasm even by predominantly heterosexual audiences.

 

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